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          熱軋與冷軋的區別

          日期:2019-10-30 01:04
          瀏覽次數:0
          摘要:<p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">熱軋和冷軋都是鋼板或型材成型的工序,它們對鋼材的組織和性能有很大的影響。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">鋼的軋制主要以熱軋為主,冷軋只用于生產小號型鋼和薄板。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">熱軋</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">從定義上來說,鋼錠或鋼坯在常溫下很難變形,不易加工,一般加熱到1100~1250℃進行軋制,這種軋制工藝叫熱軋。</span><br data-filtered="filtered" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;" /> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">熱軋的終止溫度一般為800~900℃,之后一般在空氣中冷卻,因而熱軋狀態相當于正火處理。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">大部分鋼材都用熱軋方法軋制。熱軋狀態交貨的鋼材,由于高溫的緣故,表面生成一層氧化鐵皮,因而具有一定的耐蝕性,可露天存放。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">但這層氧化鐵皮也使熱軋鋼材表面粗糙,尺寸波動較大,所以要求表面光潔、尺寸**、力學性能好的鋼材,要用熱軋半成品或成品為原料再冷軋生產。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷軋</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷軋,是指在常溫下,用軋輥的壓力擠壓鋼材,改變鋼材形狀的軋制方法。</span><br data-filtered="filtered" style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;" /> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">盡管加工過程也會使鋼板升溫,但仍然稱為冷軋。具體一點說,冷軋用熱軋鋼卷為原料,經酸洗去除氧化皮后進行壓力加工,其成品為軋硬卷。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷軋板表面有一定的光潔度,手摸起來比較光滑,主要是酸洗之功。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷軋對鋼材形狀的改變屬于連續冷變形,此過程引起的冷作硬化使軋硬卷的強度、硬度上升、韌塑指標下降。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">對終端使用來說,冷軋使沖壓性能惡化,產品適用于簡單變形的零件。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></span> </p> <article class="" data-author="Wxeditor" style="margin:5px auto;padding:0px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;line-height:25.6px;text-align:center;font-size:14px;border:0px;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px auto;padding:0px;max-width:100%;color:#333333;border-bottom:2px solid #EC4444;clear:both;text-align:left;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"><section class="" style="margin:0px;padding:3px 10px 0px;max-width:100%;display:inline-block;color:#FFFFFF;border-top-left-radius:3px;border-top-right-radius:3px;height:30px;font-size:16px;background-color:#EC4444;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">總結:</section><section style="margin:0px 0px 0px 2px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;border-top:28px solid transparent;border-right-color:#CECECE;border-bottom:0px solid transparent;border-left:15px solid #CECECE;display:inline-block;vertical-align:top;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;"></section></section></article> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">冷軋與熱軋的分別主要是軋制過程的溫度。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">“冷”為常溫,“熱”為高溫。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">從金屬學的觀點看,冷軋與熱軋的界限應以再結晶溫度來區分。</span> </p> <p style="margin-top:0px;margin-bottom:0px;padding:0px;line-height:2em;min-height:1em;font-size:16px;white-space:normal;max-width:100%;clear:both;color:#3E3E3E;font-family:&quot;Hiragino Sans GB&quot;, &quot;Microsoft YaHei&quot;, Arial, sans-serif;text-indent:2em;background-color:#FFFFFF;box-sizing:border-box !important;"> <span style="margin:0px;padding:0px;max-width:100%;font-size:15px;line-height:2em;text-indent:2em;box-sizing:border-box !important;word-wrap:break-word !important;">即低于再結晶溫度的軋制為冷軋,高于再結晶溫度的軋制為熱軋。鋼的再結晶溫度為450~600℃。</span> </p>

          熱軋和冷軋都是鋼板或型材成型的工序,它們對鋼材的組織和性能有很大的影響。

          鋼的軋制主要以熱軋為主,冷軋只用于生產小號型鋼和薄板。

          熱軋

          從定義上來說,鋼錠或鋼坯在常溫下很難變形,不易加工,一般加熱到1100~1250℃進行軋制,這種軋制工藝叫熱軋。

          熱軋的終止溫度一般為800~900℃,之后一般在空氣中冷卻,因而熱軋狀態相當于正火處理。

          大部分鋼材都用熱軋方法軋制。熱軋狀態交貨的鋼材,由于高溫的緣故,表面生成一層氧化鐵皮,因而具有一定的耐蝕性,可露天存放。

          但這層氧化鐵皮也使熱軋鋼材表面粗糙,尺寸波動較大,所以要求表面光潔、尺寸**、力學性能好的鋼材,要用熱軋半成品或成品為原料再冷軋生產。

          冷軋

          冷軋,是指在常溫下,用軋輥的壓力擠壓鋼材,改變鋼材形狀的軋制方法。

          盡管加工過程也會使鋼板升溫,但仍然稱為冷軋。具體一點說,冷軋用熱軋鋼卷為原料,經酸洗去除氧化皮后進行壓力加工,其成品為軋硬卷。

          冷軋板表面有一定的光潔度,手摸起來比較光滑,主要是酸洗之功。

          冷軋對鋼材形狀的改變屬于連續冷變形,此過程引起的冷作硬化使軋硬卷的強度、硬度上升、韌塑指標下降。

          對終端使用來說,冷軋使沖壓性能惡化,產品適用于簡單變形的零件。

          總結:

          冷軋與熱軋的分別主要是軋制過程的溫度。

          “冷”為常溫,“熱”為高溫。

          從金屬學的觀點看,冷軋與熱軋的界限應以再結晶溫度來區分。

          即低于再結晶溫度的軋制為冷軋,高于再結晶溫度的軋制為熱軋。鋼的再結晶溫度為450~600℃。

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